Lántas pronouns, demonstratives, etc

Pronouns are inflected for the same cases as other nouns, though their forms are somewhat irregular.

Personal pronouns

The first person plural til is only used inclusively of the listener. For an exclusive meaning, a form like rukas ká (‘they and I’) is used.

The LOC column is the word stems which the locational cases are attached to. Their suffixes are regular.

NOM til sur sual rúl
GEN kat tial sut suatł rut rutł
COM kakas tiksł sukas suksł rukas ruksł
CAR kassa tissal sussa sussal russa russal
INS kala tilla sulla sualla rulla rualla
ESS kagu tigul sugu sugul rugu rugul
TRA kasti tistil susti sustul rusti rustil
EXE kaču tičul sučču suččul ruču ručul
LOC ká– tí–l sú– sua–l rú– rua–l


There is a three way distance distinction for demonstratives: a new referent near the speaker/listener, a new referent distant from both, and old information. These will be glossed as ‘this’, ‘yon’, and ‘that’, respectively.

The near demonstrative is lua, whose declension is given below. For distant referents it is ƶua and for old information mua; they decline in the same way as lua.

The adjectival (ADJ) forms of these words are used as determiners before other nouns. Note that unlike most nouns, it is distinct from the genitive: compare muƶ kalńł ‘those cats’ and mut kalńł ‘that person’s cats’. It also lacks stress, unlike the other forms.

NOM lua lul
GEN lut lutł
COM lukas luksł
CAR lussa lussal
INS lulla lullal
ESS lugu lugul
TRA lusti lustil
EXE luču lučul
LOC lu– lu–l
ADJ luƶ luƶ


The words ‘someone’, ‘something’, ‘anyone’, ‘anything’ are served by (a stressed form of) the numeral nai ‘one’. ‘Everyone’ or ‘everything’ is nakasnai, and inflects the same way as nai itself. The words nala and nakasnala mean ‘any’ and ‘every’, respectively.


Interrogatives (question words) are formed with the enclitic -pa, attached to any noun phrase. As well as naipa ‘what?, who?’, it can be added to any other word to mean ‘which?’.

Naipa musat ai?
Nai=pa mu–sa–t ai
one=what that–ADESS be
Who’s there?
Hámamlinaspa sidasiha?
háma–m–li–nas=pa sida–si–ha
country–DEFINABL=what come–RPST2SG
Which country do you come from?

Being a clitic, -pa is added to the end of the noun, after all other (non-clitic) endings such as case inflections, as shown in the above examples.